“Relative Clause” lar kendi başına bir cümle değildir. Bir ismi tanımlarlar, niteler veya tasvir ederler. Sıfatlar tanımladıkları isimden önce, “Relative Clause“lar ise açıkladığı isimden hemen sonra gelir.
– The man has given me a present.
– Adam bana bir hediye verdi.
Bu cümlede biz eğer adamı tanıtmak ve belirtmek istersek bir sıfat kullanmamız gerekmektedir.
– The old man has given me a present.
– İhtiyar adam bana bir hediye verdi.
Adamı böyle tanıtacağımız gibi bazen de daha düzgün ifadelerden oluşmuş bir cümle kullanarak da tanıtabiliriz.
– The old man called me in the street. He gave me a present.
– Sokakta ihtiyar bir adam bana seslendi. O bana bir hediye verdi.
Bu iki cümle hangi ihtiyar adamdan bahsedildiğini belirtmek için birleştirilebilir.
– The old man who called me in the street gave me a present.
“Who called me in the street” cümlesi esas cümlenin içinde yer alan ilişki cümlesidir. Bu cümle “Relative Clause” diye adlandırılır çünkü büyük cümlenin içindeki ismi (adamı) tanımlamaktadır ve ona bağlıdır.
– Ahmet is my best friend. He comes from İzmir.
– Ahmet who comes from İzmir is my best friend.
Yukarıda örnekte görüldüğü gibi birinci cümle Ahmet’ten bahsederken, ikinci cümlede Ahmet’in kim olduğunu anlatıp onu açıklamakta bundan dolayı iki cümleyi birleştirirken ikinci cümle Ahmet’i açıkladığı için onun yanına “Who” (insanlar için kullanılır) ilave ediyoruz.
Tanımladığımız şey eğer bir insan ise “who”, hayvan ya da herhangi bir eşya ise “which” ilişki kelimesi kullanılır.
– The man who has written this book is famous writer.
– Bu kitabı yazan adam ünlü bir yazardır.
Bu cümlede bir insan (adam, yazar) tanımlandığı için “who” kullanılır.
– This book which has written by a famous writer is a best seller.
–Ünlü bir yazar tarafından yazılan bu kitap çok satan bir kitaptır.
Bu cümlede bir eşya (kitap) tanımlandığı için “which” kullanılır.
– The doctor who operated on my father is the best in our city.
– Babamı ameliyat eden doktor şehrimizin en iyisidir.
– The train which crashed into a lorry is being repaired here.
- Kamyona çarpan tren burada tamir ediliyor.
– The child who was playing in the garden is my brother.–Bahçede oynayan çocuk benim erkek kardeşimdir.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
1-Defining relative clauses with who, that and which :
I spoke to the woman who owns the hotel.
Did you see the letter that came this morning?
1-These clauses tell us which person or thing the speaker means (for example who owns the hotel tells us which woman ; and that came this morning tells us which letter).
2-We use who for people .
I spoke to the woman. She owns the hotel.
I spoke to the woman who owns the hotel.
The man was very nice. He interviewed me.
The man who interviewed me was very nice.
3-We use that for things.
Did you see the letter? It came this morning.
Did you the letter that came this morning?
The keys have disappeared. They were on this table.
The keys that were on this table have disappered.
4-We can use which instead of that (to talk about things) in a defining relative clause.
Did you see the letter which came this morning?
The keys which were on this table have disappeared.
In an informal style , it is also possible to use that instead of who (to talk about people).
I spoke to the woman that owns the hotel.
2– Leaving out who, that and which in defining relative clauses:
1-Who, that and which can be the subject of a defining relative clause.
Marianne is the girl who invited us to the party. (who = subject : she invited us to the party).
Marianne is the girl who we met last night. (who = object : we met her last night).
2-We often leave out who , that or which when they are the objects in defining relative clauses.
Marianne is the girl we met last night. (we met her last night).
Have you seen the book I put on this table? (I put it on this table).
3-But we cannot leave out who , that or which when they are the subjects in these clauses.
Marriane is the girl who invited us to the party. (Not : Marianne is the girl invited usto the party.)
Have you seen the book that was on this table? (Not : Have you seen the book was on this table?)
4-We can use whom instead of who (for people) when it is the object of the verb in a relative clause.
I met a woman whom I know. (I know her)
But whom is quite formal and not very common in everyday speech. Instead , we use who or that (or we leave them out).
3-Defining relative clauses with whose, where, when and why/ that:
1-Whose: We use whose in relative clauses (in place of his, her, their, etc.) to talk about possesion.
I have got a friend. His brother is an actor.
I have got a friend whose brther is an actor.
They are the people. Their house caught fire.
They are the people whose house caught fire.
2-Where , when and why/that:
A- We can use where (for places) and when (for times) in relative clauses.
The factory where I work is going to close down.
Is there a time when we can meet?
B- After the reason we can use why or that in relative clauses.
Is there a reason why/that you want to leave now?
C- We can leave out when , why and that. We can also leave out where if we use a proposition.
Is there a time we can meet?
Is there a reason you want to leave now?
The hotel we stayed at was very small.
4-Defining and non-defining relative clauses:
1- ‘Defining’ relative clauses identify nouns: these clauses tell us which person , thing , etc the speaker means.
I spoke to the woman who owns the hotel. (who owns the hotel tells us which woman)
The house which Sue has bought is over 100 years old. (which Sue has bought tells us which house)
2- ‘Non-defining’ relative clauses do not tell us which person , thing , etc the speaker means ; these give more information about a person or thing already identified.
Ken’s mother , who is 69 , has just passed her driving test. (who is 69 does not tell us which woman ; we already know that is Ken’s mother.)
Non-defining clauses are more common in a formal style , especially in writing. When we write these clauses , we put commas (,) at the beginnig.